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Endometrial dating

These two layers occur only in endometrium lining the cavity of the uterus, not in the lining of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes: In the absence of progesterone, the arteries supplying blood to the functional layer constrict, so that cells in that layer become ischaemic and die, leading to menstruation.

During pregnancy, the glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number.

Vascular spaces fuse and become interconnected, forming the placenta, which supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo and fetus.

This is why it is imperative to assess the endometrium in order to determine the optimal day for embryo transfer.

The ERA test requires an endometrial biopsy that should be carried out on day LH 7 (natural cycle) or day P 5 (HRT cycle).

Clinical evaluation of the endometrium by ultrasound and other techniques, like endometrial biopsy and analysis of uterine secretions, has been intensively studied and therapeutic options to improve endometrial function have been suggested and tested.

Systemic treatment with heparin, aspirin or corticosteroids did not result in improved implantation rates. with seminal plasma, are still in the phase of clinical research.

Endometrial biopsy is useful in the work-up of abnormal uterine bleeding, cancer screening, endometrial dating and infertility evaluation.